A brief history on the human Mars launches
1960 – For the first time in human history the Soviet Union tries to launch a mission to Mars. Due to an error in the carrier rocket both the probe Marsnik 1 and the rocket itself crashes in Siberia.
1964/1971 – NASA probes Mariner 4, 6, 7 and 9 all reach Mars. Mariner 9 goes into orbit around the red planet. The probe sends back pictures for as long as a year.
1971 – Mars 2 failed to land on the surface of Mars but the Soviet Union didn’t give up and the Mars 3 does land but sends back data for a brief 15 seconds.
1975 – The USA launches the Viking missions. The landing vehicles Viking 1 and 2 are by far the most important information source in terms of our knowledge about Mars until the Mars Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land 28 years later.
1996 – For 10 years the NASA Mars Global Surveyor satellite spins around Mars. This magnificent device analyses the atmosphere and shoots detailed pictures of the surface. after that it functions as a communication satellite for the Rover missions. Sojourner is the first rover on operating on Mars.In 3 months he travels 100m. This is the device the astronaut, Mark watney, discovers in the film ‘The Martian’.
2001 – Both Europe and the USA position a probe around Mars. The Mars express (ESA) examines the circulation of the Martian atmosphere while the Mars Odyssey (NASA) looks for water, ice and minerals. Both probes are still active up until this day.
2003 – After the trials with the rover Sojourner (1997) it is time to send some more! The Spirit and the Opportunity bring countless images of the surface. The Opportunity is still active and has scouted Mars for 42km and counting.
2005 – NASA’s Mars probe MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) has more taks than previous space probes. In 2016 it delivers the magnificent news of water on Mars!
2007 – The Phoenix performs the first landing near the north pole of Mars. In 2008 it measures for the first time the actual possibility of water on Mars.
2011 – Another rover is launched by NASA due to the previous successes. The Curiosity has the size of a car and is more equipped and advanced than his predecessors. The rover is still active today.
2013 – The NASA satellite Maven shows that the atmosphere of Mars has suffered more by the solar winds. The satellite was installed to investigate the disappearance of the atmosphere and most of the water on Mars.
2016 – ESA’s landing vehicle Schiaparelli and the probe ExoMars test new techniques for later missions. They search for trails of geological and biological activity in the air.
2018 – The independent company ‘SpaceX’ tries to achieve in the first private Mars mission. The spaceship the Red Dragon will make this possible. it will be launched before the daring manned missions and has to land on the surface as if there are people on board.
2020 – Europe, USA and Russia will launch new Mars rovers! The European-Russian mission will take drill samples while the American rover(s) will search for life. In the same year China wants to deliver its first independent Mars mission launch!
2022 – The planned NASA probe NeMO will act as communication satellite for further Mars missions. It will also test a new type of Ion engine.